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How closed die forging compared to machining?

Here the "closed die forging" and "machining" are the two different metal forming processes for the same product.

Closed die forging is a forging process that made from special bar quality steel.As steel bars are usually rolled,the grain structure within the steel is forced to flow along the centerline of the bar.When a forging is produced from the bar,this inherent grain flow bends to follow the contour of the forged shape,thus producing a superior part.The structural reliability of forgings allows designers to trust the material to adhere to the safety factors of the design.It also can provide more uniform response to heat treatment and machining operations.

Machining is a precison processing process that machines from bars directly with machining equipments.Machining will by definition cut through part of the grain flow.This renders the material more liable to fatigue and more sensitive to stress corrosion cracking.

How closed die forging compared to machining?

*Closed die forging offers broader size range of desired material grades. 
Sizes and shapes of products made from steel bar and plate are limited to the dimensions in which these materials are supplied. Often, forging may be the only metalworking process available with certain grades in desired sizes. Forgings can be economically produced in a wide range of sizes.

*Closed die forging has grain oriented to shape for greater strength. 
Machined bar and plate may be more susceptible to fatigue and stress corrosion because machining cuts material grain pattern. In most cases, forging yields a grain structure oriented to the part shape, resulting in optimum strength, ductility and resistance to impact and fatigue.

*Closed die forging process makes better,more economical use of materials. 
Cutting of bars is a wasteful process that consumes more material than needed.Even more is lost in subsequent machining.

*Closed die forgings yield lower scrap;greater,more cost-effective production. 

*Closed die forging makes better use of material and generate little scrap.In high-volume production runs,closed die forgings have the decisive cost advantage

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