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How to Select Die Material for Closed Die Forging?

Closed die forging dies are usually made from low-alloy, pre-hardened steels containing 0.35-0.50% carbon, 1.50-5.00% chromium, and additions of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. It is difficult to heat treat die blocks safely after machining because thermal distortion could destroy or reduce the dimensional accuracy of the cavity. Therefore, die blocks are machined after the desired hardness has been achieved through heat treatment. Die blocks containing shallow or simple cavities can be hardened to Rc 50. However, die blocks with deep cavities, nbs, or com plex design require relatively softer, tougher materials to minimize cracking and die breakage.

When the volume of parts is high and the size of the closed die forging is limited, die inserts can be incorporated in the die block to minimize wear Inserts are generally installed in locations that are prone to excessive wear due to complexity of design and material flow.

            Table 2.1 Lists recommended die block materials for closed die forging

Closed die forging material
      Die material
 Die inserts
  Punches,dies and inserts 
  Punches,dies, and inserts 

Trimmer dies 

D2,A2 or hardweld on
cutting edge of     
coldrolled steel 


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