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Cold Forging vs Warm Forging vs Hot Forging

Forging formings of metals according to temperature can be divided into cold deformation (cold forging), warm deformation (warm forging) and thermal deformation (hot forging). The microstructure and mechanical properties influences on steel forgings of these different forging processes are also different.

1) Cold forging: refers to blanks processed below the recrystallization temperature.

Characteristics of cold forging: high dimensional accuracy,good surface roughness, good working conditions and high production efficiency. So cold forging can replace machining sometimes. Cold forging can make metal reinforcement, improve the strength of parts. So it is applicable to aluminium and plastic parts alloy, copper and alloys, low carbon steel,medium carbon steel, low alloy steel which the deformation resistance is small under room temperature. But when cold plasticity, metal deformation resistance is big, with poor plasticity, and contains accumulation of residual internal stress,needs to continue deformation after intermediate annealing. Nevertheless, the advantages of cold deformation technology makes it is more and more widely used.

2)Warm forging: forging processed around the recrystallization temperature.

Warm forging process is to obtain precision forgings. The advantage of warm forging is that can improve the precision quality of forgings, at the same time, do not have the forming force as same as cold forging. Warm forging is applicable to complicated shape of small medium carbon steel precision die forgings.

Warm forging defects: warm forging is strict with deformation temperature control, and heating equipment. Because the resistance force of warm forging is bigger than hot forging, so we need large tonnage of forging equipment.

3)Hot forging: deformation temperature above the recrystallization temperature. In the deformation process, softening and work hardening coexist at the same time, but soften can completely overcome the effect of strain hardening, and after deformation, metal will have shaft fine grained organizations such as recrystallization, this deformation is called thermal deformation. For example, open die forging, hot die forging, hot rolling, heat shock, hot extrusion, all these processes belong to the thermal deformation. This is one of the most widely used type of forging process.

Hot forging characteristics: high metal plasticity and small deformation resistance make good ductility. Therefore, hot forging can be used for processing large size, complicated shape of forgings, and can improve the mechanical properties of metals. But the metal in the process of hot deformation, surface easy to form scale. It compared with cold deformation, size accuracy and surface roughness of forging is coarser, poor working conditions and productivity are worse, so hot forging will need to be equipped with corresponding heating equipment, etc.

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