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Why closed die forging is near net shape forging?

Near net shape manufacturing technologies produce components that are close to the finished size and shape, requiring a minimal amount of finishing process such as machining. Closed die forging is such a near net shape forging process that requires less or no machining. It will be helpful for us to save machining cost.

Why closed die forging is near net shape forging?
near net shape forging
*Compared to machining process, closed die forging is a precision forging process with flash, so the only waste of material is just the flash section. We could also use machining to replace closed die forging process sometimes, but as the desired shape by total machining has be reached by machining equipments, so much of material will be wasted.

*Net shape forging represents some relatively recent developments of the conventional closed die forging process. Net shape forgings are distinguished by geometric features that are thinner and more detailed, varying parting line locations, virtual elimination of draft, closer dimensional tolerances and with many as-forged surfaces. The resulting product benefits are much fewer machining operations, reduced weight and lower costs for raw materials and energy. In many cases, the only machining operations required are drilling of attachment holes.

*Near net shape forgings in the as-forged and heat treated condition usually reflect a higher production cost than do their conventionally forged counterparts. They are often but not necessarily flashless. The cost advantage shifts to near net shape forging as post-forging machining operations are eliminated.

A cost study for an aircraft steel forging made by three processes identifies the cost drivers and illustrates the trade-offs for this application. The three processes are investment casting, net-shape closed die forging, machining. The result that for large quantity production runs, the production efficiency of net shape closed die forging is more higher and the cost is also lower. Besides, we could avoid lots of defects in production process and obtain final shape with good surface finish.

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